Archaeology is a study of the past based on artifacts found in the present. These artifacts are interpreted based on knowledge of the past and decades of research. There will always be disagreement between scholars studying the artifacts because each scholar brings his or her own bias to the discussion. So the question is does archaeology support the historical narrative presented in the Old Testament?
It is best to answer this question in two parts.
Part One: Archaeology can only be used to help answer questions about the past from what has been found. Just because artifacts of antiquity have not survived or have not yet been discovered does not then automatically invalidate the history as presented by the Bible. For example there is no archaeological evidence to support the Bible’s history of Moses leading the Israelites to freedom. Does that mean that the Biblical narrative is false because no other artifacts have been discovered to support that part of the history? The absence of collaborating evidence does not invalidate the Biblical claim. It only means that Archaeology cannot independently confirm certain Biblical claims.
Part Two: Many artifacts have been found and researched by archaeology that support the Biblical history. Artifacts from non-Biblical sources that when taken as a whole validate what God has already told us about the past.
There is much of the history of the world that has been lost to time. New discoveries are being found and modern understanding of history is always being updated. God however was there and he has given a history that he wanted documented. A history that continues to be proven true.
Every word of God proves true; he is a shield to those who take refuge in him. Proverbs 30:5 ESV
The word God has left us and the story he tells is one where God chases after His creation and restores mankind to Himself. God is not just in the past but he is in the present alive today working in the lives of those who are called by his name, Jesus.
Long ago, at many times and in many ways, God spoke to our fathers by the prophets, 2 but in these last days he has spoken to us by his Son, whom he appointed the heir of all things, through whom also he created the world. 3 He is the radiance of the glory of God and the exact imprint of his nature, and he upholds the universe by the word of his power. After making purification for sins, he sat down at the right hand of the Majesty on high. Hebrews 1:1-3 ESV
* Revised and Edited. Originally posted July 2013 to Human Effort